The Ayyubid dynasty was one of the Islamic dynasties. This dynasty was led by several caliphs in turn.
Among these leaders, there were several famous caliphs. The Ayyubid dynasty was founded by Saladin al-Ayyubi. He was born in the Takriet area in 532 H or coinciding with 1137 AD. Reported in the book History of the Development of Islam in Egypt (The Period of Caliph Umar Bin Khaththab Until the Ayyubid Dynasty) by Dr. H. Husain Abdullah, M.Ag., Halid Hanafi, S.Ag., M.Ag, et al. stated that his name was made famous by Europeans as Saladin as a brave hero in the Crusades. He came from a Kurdish Ayyubid family.
Quoted from the book History of Islamic Civilization by Ahkmad Saufi and Hasmi Fadiillah, during the Ayyubid Dynasty’s rule, there were nine caliphs. Among the nine caliphs, there are three famous caliphs.
1. Caliph Saladin Yusuf Al-Ayyubi (1171-1193 AD)
Saladin Yusuf Al-Ayyubi was the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty. He comes from the Kurdish nation. Since childhood, Saladin was taught by his father to master literature, the science of kalam, memorizing the Koran, and the science of hadith at the madrasah. He also studied war techniques, strategy and politics.
After his father was placed as head of a militia division in Damascus, Saladin joined his uncle’s troops (Asaduddin Syirkuh) in leading Muslim troops to Egypt on assignment from the Syrian governor (Nurudin Zanki), to help the Fatimid dynasty face the Dirgam rebels.
Egypt was successfully controlled after the fifth attack. Saladin was appointed commander after Shirkuh died.
Saladin became increasingly skilled at leadership. He was able to mobilize and reorganize Egypt’s troops and economy, especially to face the Crusader armies.
Quoted from the book History of the Development of Islam in Egypt (The Period of Caliph Umar bin Khaththab Until the Ayyubiyah Dynasty) by Husain Abdullah, the Ayyubiyah Dynasty was founded after Saladin al-Ayyubi conquered the last caliph of the Fatimid Dynasty. The name Saladin Al-Ayyubi was famous among Europeans as Saladin as a brave hero in the Crusades.
2. Caliph Malik Al-Adil Saifuddin (1200-1218 AD)
Caliph Malik Al-Adil Saifuddin was the fourth caliph. He is the son of Najmuddin Ayyub (younger brother of Saladin Al-Ayyubi).
Al-Adil became Sultan replacing Al-Afdal who died in war. He is a talented and effective government leader and strategist.
Some of his achievements include:
Controlling Egypt in the name of Salahuddin Yusuf Al-Ayyubi in 1174 Mquelling the rebellion of the Coptic Christians in Qift – Egypt in 1169 MBecoming governor in the northern region of Egypt in 1192-1193 MFacing Izzudin’s rebellion in Mosul in 1193 AD Became governor of Syria in Damascus Became Sultan in Damascus
3. Caliph Malik Al-Kamil Muhammad (1218-1238 AD)
Caliph Malik Al-Kamil Muhammad was the son of Caliph Al-Adil. In 1218, he led the defense against the crusaders who were besieging the city of Dimyat (Damietta) and became Sultan after his father died.
In 1219, Al-Kamil almost lost his throne due to a conspiracy of Coptic Christians. In order to avoid this conspiracy, Al-Kamil went to Yemen. This conspiracy was successfully suppressed by his brother, Al-Mu’azzam, who served as Governor of Syria.
Al-Kamil agreed on a ten year peace with Frederik in February 1229 AD. The contents of the peace were:
He returned Jerusalem and other holy cities to the Crusaders. Muslims and Jews were prohibited from entering the city except around the Mosque. Aqsa and Majid Umar.
The events experienced by Al Kamil were:
Leading the defense against the Crusader troops who besieged the City of Dimyat (damietta) in 1218 AD Became Sultan of the Ayyubid Dynasty in 1218 AD, replacing Al-Adil who died Had offered peace several times with the Crusader troops, namely making agreements peace Rebuilding the wall in Jerusalem which was torn down by Al-Mu’azzam (his brother) Returning the original cross that was once installed on the stone Dome of Baitul Maqdis to Christians.